Service

SIC 7011 Hotels and Motels - Description, Market Prospects, Industry History

The hotel and motel industry played a vital role in the development of trade, commerce, and travel in the United States. In supplying everything from a cheap night's accommodation on the road, to meeting and convention spaces and coordination for large corporate events, the remarkably diverse services that American hotels provide have made the hotel industry significant.

SIC 7021 Rooming and Boarding Houses - Description, Market Prospects, Industry History

This category covers establishments primarily engaged in renting rooms, with or without board, on a fee basis. Rental of apartments, apartment hotels, and other housing units are classified in Real Estate Operators (Except Developers) and Lessors industries.

SIC 7032 Sporting and Recreational Camps - Description, Market Prospects, Industry History

In 1999, nearly 9 million people attended one of the nation's 8,500 camps, according to the American Camping Association (ACA). About 5,500 of those camps were resident camps, 2,200 were day camps, and the remaining 750 offered both day and overnight programs.

SIC 7033 Recreational Vehicle Parks and Campsites - Description, Market Prospects, Industry History

This industry classification includes establishments primarily engaged in providing overnight or short-term camping sites for recreational vehicles, trailers, campers, or tents.

SIC 7041 Organization Hotels and Lodging Houses, on Membership Basis - Description, Market Prospects, Industry History

The organization hotels and lodging houses industry included establishments such as: boarding houses for members of organizations; fraternity and sorority houses; residence clubs; and rooming houses operated by private clubs. Commercial hotels, public boarding houses, and residential homes for the aged were classified elsewhere.

SIC 7211 Power Laundries, Family and Commercial - Description, Market Prospects, Industry History

Projections based on U.S. Bureau of the Census County Business Patterns show a decline in the industry over the course of the late 1990s, with 1,422 establishments remaining by 1998, down from a peak of 1,853 in 1992.

SIC 7212 Garment Pressing, and Agents for Laundries and Drycleaners - Description, Market Prospects, Industry History

The average work force for industry firms consisted of 13 employees; most companies were privately owned, according to U.S. census figures.

SIC 7213 Linen Supply - Description, Market Prospects, Industry History

According to U.S. government statistics, there were 1,267 establishments in this category in the late 1990s, down from 1,338 in 1987.

SIC 7215 Laundries and Dry Cleaning, Coin Operated - Description, Market Prospects, Industry History

This industry classification covers establishments primarily engaged in the operation of coin-operated or other self-service laundry and dry cleaning equipment either for use on the premises, or in apartments, dormitories, and similar locations. These include establishments known as laundromats, launderettes, and self-service dry cleaners.

SIC 7216 Dry Cleaning Plants, Except Rug Cleaning - Description, Market Prospects, Industry History

Most companies in this industry provide general dry cleaning, although some specialize in treating drapery, carpeting, or fire-damaged materials. The majority of dry cleaning plants are single-proprietor firms that gross an average of less than $200,000 annually.

SIC 7217 Carpet and Upholstery Cleaning - Description, Market Prospects, Industry History

The advent of nailed-down (wall-to-wall) carpets in the 1950s fueled growth in the industry after a period of economic stagnation during World War II. Previously, people rolled up their carpets and took them to the dry cleaners or to other facilities.

SIC 7218 Industrial Launderers - Description, Market Prospects, Industry History

This industry category includes establishments that primarily provide laundered or drycleaned industrial work uniforms and related work clothing, such as protective apparel (flame and heat resistant) and clean room apparel; laundered mats and rugs; dust control items, such as treated mops, rugs, mats, dust tool covers, and cloths; laundered wiping towels; and other selected items to industrial, commercial, and government users. These items often belong to the industrial launderer who rented them to users—who may or may not have operated their own laundry or drycleaning facilities.

SIC 7219 Laundry and Garment Services, Not Elsewhere Classified - Description, Market Prospects, Industry History

Establishments in this category provide diverse services, ranging from diaper laundering to pillow cleaning and renovation to general tailor shops (except custom or merchant tailors) to textile mending services. Of these miscellaneous services, the diaper services are most common and have the biggest economic impact in the United States.

SIC 7221 Photographic Studios, Portrait - Description, Market Prospects, Industry History

The photographic portrait studio industry serves the general public with a range of portrait services. The industry includes portrait photographers, school photographers, home photographers, passport photographers, and video photographers.

SIC 7231 Beauty Shops - Description, Market Prospects, Industry History

The service industry that has developed around hair care has long been dominated by small, single-owner neighborhood establishments. Only in more recent decades has this industry seen the growth of chain salons, which are usually part of larger, diversified parent corporations.

SIC 7241 Barber Shops - Description, Market Prospects, Industry History

This category covers establishments primarily engaged in providing barber and men's styling services. It also includes barber colleges.

SIC 7251 Shoe Repair Shops and Shoeshine Parlors - Description, Market Prospects, Industry History

This category covers establishments primarily engaged in repairing footwear or shining shoes. Also included are establishments engaged in cleaning and blocking hats.

SIC 7261 Funeral Service and Crematories - Description, Market Prospects, Industry History

This classification includes establishments primarily engaged in preparing the dead for burial, conducting funerals, and cremating the dead.

SIC 7291 Tax Return Preparation Services - Description, Market Prospects, Industry History

Tax return preparation services primarily operate during the first four months of the calendar year, since April 15 is the standard due date for federal tax return filings. According to a survey conducted by Tiburon Strategic Advisors, along with several other research and survey groups, in 2002 there were 450,000 certified public accountants (CPAs) in the United States, as well as 40,000 enrolled agents (EAs).

SIC 7299 Miscellaneous Personal Services, Not Elsewhere Classified - Description, Market Prospects, Industry History

This industry encompasses a wide array of niche industries that provide personal services in one realm or another. Diverse establishments such as dating services, costume rental shops, massage parlors, scalp treatment services, tuxedo rental, escort services, baby sitting bureaus, and valet parking outfits all are placed in this miscellaneous industry classification.

SIC 7311 Advertising Agencies - Description, Market Prospects, Industry History

This industry includes establishments primarily engaged in preparing advertising (writing copy, artwork, graphics, and other creative work) and placing such advertising in periodicals, newspapers, radio, and television, or other advertising media for clients on a contract or fee basis. Establishments that either place advertising with media but offer no creative services or provide creative services but do not place the advertising with media are excluded from this industry.

SIC 7312 Outdoor Advertising Services - Description, Market Prospects, Industry History

Outdoor advertising was the first, and at one time the only, form of advertising in the world. By 1997, with the competing advertising media of television, radio, magazines, newspapers, and cable television, outdoor advertising—primarily billboards—made up less than five percent of total advertising expenditures in the United States.

SIC 7313 Radio, Television and Publishers' Advertising Representatives - Description, Market Prospects, Industry History

Establishments primarily engaged in soliciting advertising on a contract or fee basis for newspapers, magazines, and other publications or for radio and television stations. Separate offices of newspapers, magazine, and radio and television stations engaged in soliciting advertising are classified as auxiliaries.

SIC 7319 Advertising, Not Elsewhere Classified - Description, Market Prospects, Industry History

The advertising services offered by this industry include coupon distribution; display service, except outdoor; independent media buying services; poster advertising, except outdoor; distribution of product samples; shopping news advertising and distribution; and sky writing. Approximately 2,246 establishments operated in this industry in 1998, employing 45,500 workers.

SIC 7322 Adjustment and Collection Services - Description, Market Prospects, Industry History

Debt collectors are businesses acting as third-party agents to recover outstanding debts from consumers and businesses. Most credit grantors initially attempt to collect the money due using their in-house collection departments.

SIC 7323 Credit Reporting Services - Description, Market Prospects, Industry History

This industry includes establishments primarily engaged in providing mercantile and consumer credit reporting services. Examples of such establishments include consumer credit reporting bureaus, credit bureaus and agencies, credit clearinghouses, credit investigation services, and mercantile credit reporting bureaus.

SIC 7331 Direct Mail Advertising Services - Description, Market Prospects, Industry History

This category includes establishments primarily engaged in creating, producing, and mailing direct mail promotional pieces for clients. This industry also encompasses establishments primarily employed in compiling and selling mailing lists.

SIC 7334 Photocopying and Duplicating Services - Description, Market Prospects, Industry History

The quick-printing industry represents a relatively new dimension of both the commercial printing and graphic arts industries. Most companies in the photocopying industry began as printers offering while-youwait service dubbed "quick printing." What began as a small segment of the printing market experienced phenomenal growth beginning in the 1970s, changing the printing industry forever.

SIC 7335 Commercial Photography - Description, Market Prospects, Industry History

Commercial photographers provide the images for American business. Whether those images are as simple as a daytime photograph of a small town ice cream shop for a newspaper advertisement, or as complex as a carefully lit, elaborately staged still photo of an ice cream sundae for a nationally distributed magazine advertisement, they are created by commercial photographers.

SIC 7336 Commercial Art and Graphic Design - Description, Market Prospects, Industry History

The commercial art and graphic design industry encompasses the business of selling artwork for business (promotional) purposes, rather than for strictly aesthetic purposes. The artwork can be produced using a myriad of techniques, including hand painting, computer-aided design software, and video cameras.

SIC 7338 Secretarial and Court Reporting Services - Description, Market Prospects, Industry History

This category covers establishments primarily engaged in providing secretarial, word processing, typing, editing, proofreading, resume writing, letter writing, stenographic, or court reporting services.

SIC 7342 Disinfecting and Pest Control Services - Description, Market Prospects, Industry History

This industry covers establishments primarily engaged in disinfection and in termite, insect, rodent, and other pest control, generally in dwellings or other buildings. Establishments primarily engaged in pest control for lawns or agricultural production are classified in various agricultural service industries.

SIC 7349 Building Cleaning and Maintenance Services, Not Elsewhere Classified - Description, Market Prospects, Industry History

This classification covers establishments primarily engaged in furnishing building cleaning and maintenance services, not elsewhere classified, such as window cleaning, janitorial service, floor waxing, and office cleaning.

SIC 7352 Medical Equipment Rental and Leasing - Description, Market Prospects, Industry History

SIC 7353 Heavy Construction Equipment Rental and Leasing - Description, Market Prospects, Industry History

SIC 7359 Equipment Rental and Leasing, Not Elsewhere Classified - Description, Market Prospects, Industry History

SIC 7361 Employment Agencies - Description, Market Prospects, Industry History

An employment agency's major function is to place people into short- or long-term positions. The industry has been positively affected by the boom in technology, the government's efforts to get more people off welfare and into employment, the shift from corporate paternalism to the independent portability of employment skills, and the growing need for professionals on short-term bases.

SIC 7363 Help Supply Services - Description, Market Prospects, Industry History

Temporary employment is viewed by many economists as a leading economic indicator due to the fact that businesses can instantly correct changes in demand by stepping up or scaling back their temporary help. Typically, demand for temporary works has slowed in periods of economic recession, including the mid-1970s, the early 1980s, and the early 1990s.

SIC 7371 Computer Programming Services - Description, Market Prospects, Industry History

According to the U.S. Census Bureau, the custom programming services industry achieved revenues of more than $69 billion in 2000, making it one of the largest segments of the broader information technology (IT) services sector.

SIC 7372 Prepackaged Software - Description, Market Prospects, Industry History

The packaged software industry is a key growth engine in the information economy—and the U.S. economy in general.

SIC 7373 Computer Integrated Systems Design - Description, Market Prospects, Industry History

Spurred by e-commerce development and other trends, systems integration revenues grew more than 13 percent each year during the late 1990s. According to the latest data available from the U.S.

SIC 7374 Computer Processing and Data Preparation and Processing Services - Description, Market Prospects, Industry History

This category encompasses establishments primarily engaged in providing computer processing and data preparation services. The service may consist of complete processing and preparation of reports from data supplied by the customer or a specialized service, such as data entry or making data processing equipment available on an hourly or time-sharing basis.

SIC 7375 Information Retrieval Services - Description, Market Prospects, Industry History

Demand for electronic information has skyrocketed with the growth of the Internet, but the resulting low-cost competition has wreaked havoc with traditional subscription information services. The information retrieval business, which usually charges customers either by the amount of information retrieved or at a flat subscription rate, has traditionally served corporate and academic researchers and librarians—audiences that were used to paying a premium for professional-quality information.

SIC 7376 Computer Facilities Management Services - Description, Market Prospects, Industry History

One of the oldest of the computer services industries, facilities management includes interactive and batch data processing, data storage and retrieval, system diagnostics and maintenance, and network management. Customers hire facilities management companies to perform any or all of these services at computer facilities located on their own premises, much as they would hire a concessionaire to run a company cafeteria.

SIC 7377 Computer Rental and Leasing - Description, Market Prospects, Industry History

Companies in this industry bought, sold, and leased new and used high-technology equipment. These companies included maintenance companies, refurbishment/reconfiguration firms, transportation companies, financial institutions, original-equipment-manufacturer (OEM) finance companies, software distributors, and industry consultants.

SIC 7378 Computer Maintenance and Repair - Description, Market Prospects, Industry History

This category covers establishments primarily engaged in the maintenance and repair of computers and computer peripheral equipment.

SIC 7379 Computer Related Services, Not Elsewhere Classified - Description, Market Prospects, Industry History

More than a decade ago, a handful of companies like IBM Corporation and some smaller rivals dominated this industry. Corporate downsizing and reengineering in these companies forced economic power to shift from a handful of monopolies to hundreds of smaller high-tech specialists, according to the Dallas Business Journal.

SIC 7381 Detective, Guard, and Armored Car Services - Description, Market Prospects, Industry History

The security and investigations industry is a $100 billion business worldwide that has been in existence for at least 125 years. In the United States, there are approximately 11,000 businesses that make up the $11 billion contract security industry.

SIC 7382 Security Systems Services - Description, Market Prospects, Industry History

Simple on-site burglar alarms, which may deter an intruder with their noise and attract the attention of a passerby, are usually insufficient for the higher security needs of many businesses and some residences. Security systems services provide added security by continuously monitoring property alarms for multiple clients through their own off-site central station.

SIC 7383 News Syndicates - Description, Market Prospects, Industry History

This category covers establishments primarily engaged in furnishing news, pictures, and features and in supplying news reporting services to newspapers and periodicals. Separate establishments of newspaper and periodical publishers that are engaged in gathering news are classified as auxiliaries.

SIC 7384 Photofinishing Laboratories - Description, Market Prospects, Industry History

This industry classification includes establishments primarily engaged in developing film, making photographic prints and enlargements, or retouching photographs for businesses or for the general public.

SIC 7389 Business Services, Not Elsewhere Classified - Description, Market Prospects, Industry History

This group covers establishments primarily engaged in business services, not elsewhere classified, such as bondspersons, drafting services, lecture bureaus, notaries public, sign painting, speakers' bureaus, water softening services, and miscellaneous auctioneering services, on a flat fee or commission basis.

SIC 7513 Truck Rental and Leasing, without Drivers - Description, Market Prospects, Industry History

SIC 7514 Passenger Car Rental - Description, Market Prospects, Industry History

This category covers establishments primarily engaged in the short-term rental of passenger cars without drivers.

SIC 7515 Passenger Car Leasing - Description, Market Prospects, Industry History

The passenger car leasing industry is comprised primarily of companies that provide corporate clients with a range of fleet management services in addition to automobile leasing. About 30 percent of all "company cars" in the United States are leased.

SIC 7519 Utility Trailer and Recreational Vehicle Rental - Description, Market Prospects, Industry History

SIC 7521 Automobile Parking - Description, Market Prospects, Industry History

According to International Parking Institute sources, the automobile parking industry generated $43 billion in 1998, with $28 billion coming from the private side and $15 billion coming from the public side. This was a substantial increase over figures reported in previous years.

SIC 7532 Top, Body, and Upholstery Repair Shops and Paint Shops - Description, Market Prospects, Industry History

For almost as long as there have been cars, "scratch and dent" shops have been in business to rejuvenate them. Not long after cars became affordable for most of the public, car owners began looking for ways to "jazz up" their vehicles to suit their individual tastes.

SIC 7533 Auto Exhaust System Repair Shops - Description, Market Prospects, Industry History

This industry classification includes establishments primarily engaged in the installation, repair, or sale and installation of automotive exhaust systems. The sale of mufflers, tailpipes, and catalytic converters is considered to be incidental to the installation of these products.

SIC 7534 Tire Retreading and Repair Shops - Description, Market Prospects, Industry History

This classification covers businesses that primarily repair and retread automotive tires. Industry firms either retread customers' tires or retread tires for sale or exchange.

SIC 7536 Automotive Glass Replacement Shops - Description, Market Prospects, Industry History

This category covers establishments primarily engaged in the installation, repair, or sales and installation of automotive glass. The sale of the glass is considered incidental to the replacement.

SIC 7537 Automotive Transmission Repair Shops - Description, Market Prospects, Industry History

This category covers establishments primarily engaged in the installation, repair, or sales and installation of automotive transmissions. The sale of transmissions and related parts is considered incidental to the installation or repair of these products.

SIC 7538 General Automotive Repair Shops - Description, Market Prospects, Industry History

The general automotive repair industry, once dominated by small, independent service stations offering personal attention, evolved toward heated competition between manufacturers, dealer networks, and large, chain service centers. The rapidly increasing complexity of vehicles in the 1990s and early 2000s led to greater specialization among automotive mechanics.

SIC 7539 Automotive Repair Shops, Not Elsewhere Classified - Description, Market Prospects, Industry History

Miscellaneous services done by automotive repair shops included automotive tune-ups, automotive electrical repair, battery and ignition repair, fuel system conversion, generator and starter repair, and brake work. This broad classification had 9,674 businesses in the mid 1990s, many of which were sole proprietorships or partnerships.

SIC 7542 Carwashes - Description, Market Prospects, Industry History

This category covers establishments primarily engaged in washing, waxing, and polishing motor vehicles (including automobiles, trucks, and buses), or in furnishing facilities for the self-service washing of such vehicles.

SIC 7549 Automotive Services, Except Repair and Carwashes - Description, Market Prospects, Industry History

Examples of miscellaneous automotive service providers include emissions testing centers, inspection services, do-it-yourself garages, diagnostic centers, lubricating and oil change shops, emergency road services, rust roofers, window tinting shops, and towing services. The industry consisted mostly of small repair shops.

SIC 7622 Radio and Television Repair Shops - Description, Market Prospects, Industry History

This classification covers establishments primarily engaged in repairing radios, televisions, phonographs, stereo equipment, and tape recorders. Also included are establishments engaged in installing and repairing television, amateur, and citizens' band antennas, or in installing and servicing radio transmitting and receiving equipment in homes, offices, boats, automobiles, or other vehicles.

SIC 7623 Refrigeration and Airconditioning Service and Repair Shops - Description, Market Prospects, Industry History

SIC 7629 Electrical and Electronic Repair Shops, Not Elsewhere Classified - Description, Market Prospects, Industry History

This industry category includes establishments that primarily repair electrical and electronic equipment, such as electrical household appliances and electrical and electronic industrial equipment.

SIC 7631 Watch, Clock, and Jewelry Repair - Description, Market Prospects, Industry History

The watch, clock, and jewelry repair industry consists of a few large industry leaders and many small local shops. Most watch, clock, and jewelry repair shops are small, privately-owned firms, often affiliated with local jewelry retailers.

SIC 7641 Reupholstery and Furniture Repair - Description, Market Prospects, Industry History

Furniture making became more automated after water-and steam-powered tools were introduced early in the nineteenth century. The artisan's role was largely eliminated in the mainstream furniture industry, and inexpensive furniture produced by high-volume manufacturers reduced demand for labor-intensive repair services.

SIC 7692 Welding Repair - Description, Market Prospects, Industry History

This classification covers businesses that primarily do general repair work by welding, including automotive welding.

SIC 7694 Armature Rewinding Shops - Description, Market Prospects, Industry History

This category covers businesses that primarily re-wind armatures and rebuild or repair electric motors. These companies may either repair customers' equipment, or repair or rebuild for sale or exchange to users or the trade.

SIC 7699 Repair Shops and Related Services, Not Elsewhere Classified - Description, Market Prospects, Industry History

This category covers establishments primarily engaged in specialized repair services, not elsewhere classified.

SIC 7812 Motion Picture and Videotape Production - Description, Market Prospects, Industry History

The U.S. motion picture and video production industry serves as a major supplier of entertainment and information to the world by producing videos, television programs, and movies that can be seen in more than 100 countries.

SIC 7819 Services Allied to Motion Picture Production - Description, Market Prospects, Industry History

This category includes establishments primarily engaged in performing services independent of motion picture production, but allied thereto. These include motion picture film processing, editing and titling, casting, wardrobe and studio property rental, motion picture and video tape reproduction, and stock footage film libraries.

SIC 7822 Motion Picture and Videotape Distribution - Description, Market Prospects, Industry History

The U.S. motion picture distribution industry in the early 2000s was stratified into two distinct categories: majors and independents.

SIC 7829 Services Allied to Motion Picture Distribution - Description, Market Prospects, Industry History

This classification includes establishments primarily engaged in performing auxiliary services to motion picture distribution, such as film delivery service, film purchasing and booking agencies, and film libraries.

SIC 7832 Motion Picture Theaters, Except Drive-in - Description, Market Prospects, Industry History

This category covers commercially operated theaters primarily engaged in the indoor exhibition of motion pictures.

SIC 7833 Drive-in Motion Picture Theaters - Description, Market Prospects, Industry History

This category covers commercially operated theaters, commonly known as drive-ins, primarily engaged in the outdoor exhibition of motion pictures.

SIC 7841 Videotape Rental - Description, Market Prospects, Industry History

Under assault from alternative entertainment media like pay-per-view television and video-on-demand services, video stores in the early 2000s faced a mixed future. After rapid growth in the 1980s and early 1990s, video rentals in the United States stalled in the mid-1990s as the market grew saturated and as competing modes of entertainment chipped away at home video rental.

SIC 7911 Dance Studios, Schools, and Halls - Description, Market Prospects, Industry History

Establishments in this industry are primarily engaged in operating dance studios, schools, and public dance halls or ballrooms. Establishments primarily engaged in renting facilities used as dance halls or ballrooms are classified in SIC 6512: Operators of Nonresidential Buildings.

SIC 7922 Theatrical Producers (Except Motion Picture) and Miscellaneous Theatrical Services - Description, Market Prospects, Industry History

SIC 7929 Bands, Orchestras, Actors, and Other Entertainers and Entertainment Groups - Description, Market Prospects, Industry History

This category covers establishments primarily engaged in providing entertainment other than live theatrical presentations; these establishments include bands, orchestras, and entertainers.

SIC 7933 Bowling Centers - Description, Market Prospects, Industry History

This industry includes establishments known to the public as bowling centers or bowling alleys. Such establishments frequently sell meals and refreshments.

SIC 7941 Professional Sports Clubs and Promoters - Description, Market Prospects, Industry History

SIC 7948 Racing, Including Track Operation - Description, Market Prospects, Industry History

This classification covers promoters and participants in racing activities, including racetrack operators, operators of racing stables, jockeys, racehorse trainers, and race car owners and operators.

SIC 7991 Physical Fitness Facilities - Description, Market Prospects, Industry History

According to the International Health, Racquet & Sportsclub Association, the number of health clubs in the United States grew by 5.1 percent during 2001 to 17,807 facilities at the beginning of 2002, up from 16,938 in January 2001. Despite the slow economy that characterized the first years of the 2000s, health club expansion continued at a quick pace.

SIC 7992 Public Golf Courses - Description, Market Prospects, Industry History

By definition, public golf courses are open to the public on a contract or fee basis. According to The National Golf Foundation, there were 16,365 golf courses in the United States as of December 31, 1998.

SIC 7993 Coin-Operated Amusement Devices - Description, Market Prospects, Industry History

This industry includes establishments primarily engaged in operating coin-operated amusement devices, either in their own or in other places of business. Such amusement devices include jukeboxes, pinball machines, mechanical games, electronic games, pool tables, shuffle alleys, electronic darts, video games, kiddie rides, prize dispensing machines, and slot machines.

SIC 7996 Amusement Parks - Description, Market Prospects, Industry History

According to The Great American Amusement Parks, the earliest amusement parks were the European pleasure gardens of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. But only with the technological advances of the Industrial Revolution did the mechanical rides of the modern amusement park come into being.

SIC 7997 Membership Sports and Recreation Clubs - Description, Market Prospects, Industry History

An estimated 15,100 membership sports and recreation clubs were in operation in 1998, generating revenues of more than $7.5 billion. These numbers represent a 15.5 percent growth in the number of clubs and a whopping 61 percent increase in revenues from 1990.

SIC 7999 Amusement and Recreation Services, Not Elsewhere Classified - Description, Market Prospects, Industry History

Americans entertain themselves with a broad spectrum of amusements and recreations that include participatory and spectator sports, tourism, and other activities. Members of this broad industry range from athletes to bowling instructors and from fortune tellers to fireworks operators.

SIC 8011 Offices, Clinics of Doctors of Medicine - Description, Market Prospects, Industry History

This industry consists of offices and clinics of licensed medical doctors, excluding doctors of osteopathic medicine (covered in SIC 8031: Clinics of Doctors of Osteopathy). These establishments are engaged in general or specialized medicine or surgery.

SIC 8021 Offices and Clinics of Dentists - Description, Market Prospects, Industry History

This industry consists of offices and clinics of licensed practitioners of dentistry with the degree of D.M.D., D.D.S., or D.D.Sc. Included in this industry are the offices of dentists, dental surgeons, pediatric dentists, endodontists (root canal specialists), oral pathologists (specialists in mouth diseases), orthodontists (specialists in straightening the teeth), periodontists (gum specialists), and prosthodontists (artificial teeth and denture specialists).

SIC 8031 Offices and Clinics of Doctors of Osteopathy - Description, Market Prospects, Industry History

This industry consists of offices and clinics of licensed doctors of osteopathic medicine (D.O.) and engaged in the practice of general or specialized osteopathic medicine and surgery. Establishments operating as clinics of osteopathic physicians are included in this industry.

SIC 8041 Offices and Clinics of Chiropractors - Description, Market Prospects, Industry History

This category includes establishments of licensed practitioners having the degree of doctor of chiropractic and engaged in the practice of chiropractic medicine. Operations serving as clinics of chiropractors are also covered in this industry.

SIC 8042 Offices and Clinics of Optometrists - Description, Market Prospects, Industry History

This category covers establishments of licensed practitioners having the degree of O.D. (Doctor of Optometry) and engaged in the practice of optometry.

SIC 8043 Offices and Clinics of Podiatrists - Description, Market Prospects, Industry History

This category pertains to establishments of licensed practitioners having the degree of D.P. (Doctor of Podiatry) and engaged in the practice of podiatry.

SIC 8049 Offices and Clinics of Health Practitioners, Not Elsewhere Classified - Description, Market Prospects, Industry History

This industry consists of establishments of health care practitioners engaged in the practice of health fields not elsewhere classified. Practitioners may or may not be licensed or certified, depending on the state in which they practice.

SIC 8051 Skilled Nursing Care Facilities - Description, Market Prospects, Industry History

This industry contains establishments primarily engaged in providing inpatient nursing and rehabilitative services to patients who require continuous health care but not hospital services. Care must be ordered by and under the direction of a physician.

SIC 8052 Intermediate Care Facilities - Description, Market Prospects, Industry History

This industry includes establishments that provide inpatient nursing and rehabilitative services, but not on a continuous basis. Designated in particular are facilities certified under the Medicaid program to deliver intermediate care to the developmentally disabled.

SIC 8059 Nursing and Personal Care Facilities, Not Elsewhere Classified - Description, Market Prospects, Industry History

This classification covers establishments primarily engaged in providing limited nursing and health-related or personal care to individuals who do not need the degree of care and treatment that a skilled or intermediate care facility provides.

SIC 8062 General Medical and Surgical Hospitals - Description, Market Prospects, Industry History

According to the 2002 Statistical Abstract of the United States, the United States had 5,810 general and surgical hospitals in 2000, down from 6,965 in 1980. Of the total facilities in 2000, approximately 3,000 hospitals had more than 100 beds.

SIC 8063 Psychiatric Hospitals - Description, Market Prospects, Industry History

Psychiatric hospitals are primarily inpatient, acute care units. A growing public awareness of mental disorders between 1970 and 1992 led to a significant increase in the number of these establishments and in the range of services they provided.

SIC 8069 Specialty Hospitals, Except Psychiatric - Description, Market Prospects, Industry History

This industry consists of establishments primarily engaged in providing hospital services for specialized categories of patients, except for the mentally ill (see SIC 8051: Skilled Nursing Care Facilities and SIC 8063: Psychiatric Hospitals. Hospitals in this industry classification include facilities that treat alcoholism and drug addiction, cancer, children's illnesses, chronic disease, maternity, orthopedic, and tuberculosis.

SIC 8071 Medical Laboratories - Description, Market Prospects, Industry History

This category covers establishments that provide professional analytic or diagnostic services to the medical profession or to patients upon prescription of their physicians.

SIC 8072 Dental Laboratories - Description, Market Prospects, Industry History

This classification comprises establishments primarily engaged in making dentures, artificial teeth, and orthodontic appliances to order for the dental profession. Those establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing artificial teeth, except to order, are classified in SIC 3843: Dental Equipment and Supplies, and those providing dental x-ray laboratory services are classified in SIC 8071: Medical Laboratories.

SIC 8082 Home Health Care Services - Description, Market Prospects, Industry History

This industry consists of establishments primarily engaged in providing skilled nursing or medical care in the home under the supervision of a physician. It includes home healthcare services and visiting nurse associations that provide care to recovering, disabled, and chronically or terminally ill people.

SIC 8092 Kidney Dialysis Centers - Description, Market Prospects, Industry History

An aging population and a growing health care sector were reflected in the continued growth of the dialysis center industry, which is composed of approved independent and hospital-based or affiliated facilities. All kidney dialysis centers are regulated and subsidized by the federal government, which grants exclusive licenses to providers to supply long-term dialysis within a designated territory.

SIC 8093 Specialty Outpatient Facilities, Not Elsewhere Classified - Description, Market Prospects, Industry History

This grouping covers establishments primarily engaged in outpatient care of a specialized nature with permanent facilities and with medical staff to provide diagnosis, treatment, or both for patients who are ambulatory and do not require inpatient care. Offices and clinics of health practitioners are classified according to their primary health care activity.

SIC 8099 Health and Allied Services, Not Elsewhere Classified - Description, Market Prospects, Industry History

This classification is comprised of establishments primarily engaged in providing health and allied services, not described under other classifications.

SIC 8111 Legal Services - Description, Market Prospects, Industry History

This industry consists of establishments that are headed by members of the bar and are primarily engaged in offering legal advice and/or services. Such establishments include attorneys, counselors at law, law offices, lawyers, legal aid services, legal services, patent solicitors' offices, and referees in bankruptcy.

SIC 8211 Elementary and Secondary Schools - Description, Market Prospects, Industry History

This category includes elementary and secondary schools furnishing academic courses, ordinarily for kindergarten through grade 12. It includes both public and private institutions and encompasses parochial schools, boarding schools, vocational high schools, and schools providing special services for physically and mentally handicapped students.

SIC 8221 Colleges, Universities, and Professional Schools - Description, Market Prospects, Industry History

This classification covers colleges, universities, seminaries, and professional schools offering academic courses and granting academic degrees. The minimum requirement for admission is a high school diploma or equivalent general academic training.

SIC 8222 Junior Colleges and Technical Institutes - Description, Market Prospects, Industry History

By the late 1990s, more than 1,500 institutions in the United States offered courses at the junior, community, or technical college level to more than 6 million students. This type of institution is often referred to as a two-year college, though this designation only pertains to establishments that provide students with an Associate's degree.

SIC 8231 Libraries - Description, Market Prospects, Industry History

During the early 2000s, 117,418 libraries provided services to the public and to specialized audiences. Libraries offer printed matter, electronic services, audio and video recordings, CD-ROM, lectures and similar adult programming, concerts, puppet shows, as well as reading hours for children, bookmobiles, and many other services.

SIC 8243 Data Processing Schools - Description, Market Prospects, Industry History

Data processing schools are profit-making institutions that teach specific skills required for computer-related jobs. The types of schools range from residential vocational training schools to correspondence school programs.

SIC 8244 Business and Secretarial Schools - Description, Market Prospects, Industry History

This category includes establishments offering courses in business machine operation, office procedures, and secretarial and stenographic skills. Schools offering academic degrees are classified in Industry Groups 821 and 822.

SIC 8249 Vocational Schools, Not Elsewhere Classified - Description, Market Prospects, Industry History

This classification covers establishments primarily engaged in offering specialized vocational courses, not elsewhere classified. Also included in this industry are establishments primarily engaged in offering educational courses by mail.

SIC 8299 Schools and Educational Services, Not Elsewhere Classified - Description, Market Prospects, Industry History

Somewhere between traditional education at colleges or universities and adult enrichment classes at the local high school, there lies a vast array of schools, programs and educational services intended to educate students in areas where other schools may have left them out. Specialty schools and classes, often turning interests into careers, have enjoyed a steady following through the 1990s and into the new millennium.

SIC 8322 Individual and Family Social Services - Description, Market Prospects, Industry History

The services within this industry can be classified as either public assistance programs or social service programs. These include individual and family service establishments that provide counseling and social services such as refugee, disaster, and temporary relief.

SIC 8331 Job Training and Vocational Rehabilitation Services - Description, Market Prospects, Industry History

This category encompasses establishments primarily engaged in providing manpower training and vocational rehabilitation services for the unemployed, the under-employed, the disabled, and persons who have a job market disadvantage because of lack of education, job skills, or experience. Included in this industry are upgrading and job-development services, skill training, world-of-work orientation, and vocational rehabilitation counseling.

SIC 8351 Child Day Care Services - Description, Market Prospects, Industry History

In 2002, two-thirds of women with preschool-aged children worked outside the home, up from 39 percent in 1975. At the beginning of the twentieth-first century, the daycare business had become, by some estimates, a $30 billion dollar industry and was poised to grow even further over the next several years.

SIC 8361 Residential Care - Description, Market Prospects, Industry History

Facilities of many different types fall into the general category called residential care. The types of establishments in this classification include children's homes, rehabilitation facilities, group homes for people with a variety of limitations, halfway houses, and rest homes for the aged.

SIC 8399 Social Services, Not Elsewhere Classified - Description, Market Prospects, Industry History

There were an estimated 19,600 establishments in the social services industry in 1996—an increase of more than 47 percent from 1987. The majority of establishments were in New York and California.

SIC 8412 Museums and Art Galleries - Description, Market Prospects, Industry History

The numerous U.S. museums seem as permanent and stable a part of the cultural landscape as schools and libraries, but it was not until the late nineteenth century that they attained social respectability and civic solidity.

SIC 8422 Arboreta and Botanical or Zoological Gardens - Description, Market Prospects, Industry History

This industry covers establishments primarily engaged in operating arboreta, botanical gardens, zoological gardens, and/or zoological exhibits.

SIC 8611 Business Associations - Description, Market Prospects, Industry History

This industry classification includes membership organizations engaged in promoting the business interests of their members. Associations owned by their members but organized to perform a specific business function, such as common marketing of crops or joint advertising, are classified according to the function performed.

SIC 8621 Professional Membership Organizations - Description, Market Prospects, Industry History

This industry covers membership organizations of professional persons for the advancement of the interests of their profession.

SIC 8631 Labor Unions and Similar Labor Organizations - Description, Market Prospects, Industry History

This industry includes membership organizations of workers that operate for the improvement of wages and working conditions.

SIC 8641 Civic, Social, and Fraternal Associations - Description, Market Prospects, Industry History

This category covers membership organizations engaged in civic, social, or fraternal activities, excluding homeowner groups primarily associated with property management and membership sports and recreation clubs, which are classified elsewhere.

SIC 8651 Political Organizations - Description, Market Prospects, Industry History

The most prominent type of political organization is the political action committee, or PAC, which gradually came to replace the smaller localized political parties so prevalent in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. PACs are organized to pool the financial resources of a group of individuals or institutions with a common interest in order to disperse those funds toward political activities or candidates deemed by the PACs' organizers as conducive to the ends sought.

SIC 8661 Religious Organizations - Description, Market Prospects, Industry History

Religious organizations in the United States have been involved in an innumerable range of activities. In recent years, these activities have included everything from organizing food drives for the poor, to campaigns to aid those victimized by the terrorist attacks of September 11, to grassroots measures to remove the teaching of biological evolution in U.S.

SIC 8699 Membership Organizations, Not Elsewhere Classified - Description, Market Prospects, Industry History

This category covers membership organizations, not elsewhere classified (NEC), such as art councils, automobile owner's associations and clubs, humane societies, and reading rooms.

SIC 8711 Engineering Services - Description, Market Prospects, Industry History

Engineering covers a vast array of specialties touching virtually all aspects of life. The profession is categorized into disciplines representing designated areas of interest, though not all commentators define the disciplines in the same way.

SIC 8712 Architectural Services - Description, Market Prospects, Industry History

Design firms primarily engaged in providing professional construction-related design services constitute the architectural services industry. This industry includes companies that offer engineering design services related to architectural work, but does not include civil engineering or ship and boat design companies.

SIC 8713 Surveying Services - Description, Market Prospects, Industry History

This industry is comprised of establishments primarily engaged in providing professional surveying services and photogrammetric engineering. Types of surveys produced include land, water, and aerial surveys.

SIC 8721 Accounting, Auditing, and Bookkeeping Services - Description, Market Prospects, Industry History

Accounting, auditing, and bookkeeping services serve key functions in America's (and the world's) economic engine. In such publications as The Bottom Line, the global significance of the accounting profession has long been confirmed: "The world's capital markets rely on financial statements certified by independent auditors.

SIC 8731 Commercial Physical and Biological Research - Description, Market Prospects, Industry History

This industry classification covers establishments primarily engaged in commercial physical and biological research and development on a contract or fee basis. Noncommercial research establishments funded by endowments, grants, or contributions are classified in SIC 8733: Noncommercial Research Organizations.

SIC 8732 Commercial Economic, Sociological, and Educational Research - Description, Market Prospects, Industry History

SIC 8733 Noncommercial Research Organizations - Description, Market Prospects, Industry History

SIC 8734 Testing Laboratories - Description, Market Prospects, Industry History

Testing laboratories exist in both corporate in-house and independent settings and include varied services such as assaying; automobile proving and testing grounds; calibration and certification testing; dosimetry (measurement of radiation); film badge service (radiation detection); food testing; forensic services; hydrostatic testing services; product testing; metallurgical testing; pollution testing; radiographing welded joints on pipes and fittings; seed testing; veterinary testing; and industrial X-ray inspection.

SIC 8741 Management Services - Description, Market Prospects, Industry History

This category covers establishments primarily engaged in furnishing general or specialized management services on a day-to-day basis and on a contract or fee basis. Establishments in this industry do not provide operating staff.

SIC 8742 Management Consulting Services - Description, Market Prospects, Industry History

This industry consists of establishments primarily engaged in furnishing operating counsel and assistance to management of private, nonprofit, and public organizations. These establishments generally perform a variety of activities, such as strategic and organizational planning; financial planning and budgeting; marketing objectives and policies; information systems planning, evaluation, and selection; human resource policies and practices planning; and production scheduling and control planning.

SIC 8743 Public Relations Services - Description, Market Prospects, Industry History

This category covers establishments primarily engaged in the preparation of materials, written or spoken, that are designed to influence the general public or other groups in promoting the interests of their clients.

SIC 8744 Facilities Support Management Services - Description, Market Prospects, Industry History

This group covers establishments primarily engaged in furnishing personnel to perform a range of services in support of the operations of other establishments or in providing a number of different continuing services, on a contract or fee basis, within another establishment. Included in the industry are establishments primarily engaged in the private operation of jails and adult correctional facilities, whether or not providing both management and supporting staff.

SIC 8748 Business Consulting Services, Not Elsewhere Classified - Description, Market Prospects, Industry History

This category covers establishments primarily engaged in furnishing business consulting services, not elsewhere classified, on a contract or fee basis, including such specialties as agriculture, city planning, radio consulting, test development, and traffic consulting.

SIC 8811 Private Households - Description, Market Prospects, Industry History

This industry consists of private households that employ workers on or about the premises who serve in occupations usually considered as domestic service. This classification includes baby-sitting; domestic service; private estates; noncommercial farmhouses; private households employing cooks, maids, chauffeurs, and gardeners; personal affairs management; and noncommercial residential farms.

SIC 8999 Services, Not Elsewhere Classified - Description, Market Prospects, Industry History

This group covers businesses that primarily provide services, not elsewhere classified (NEC), such as authors, lecturers, radio commentators, song writers, weather forecasters, writers, and artists working on their own account.

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